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Previous studies have identified NPY's anxiolytic effects to a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism.  As stated before, NPY levels and ethanol intake show an inverse relationship, therefore, therefore, increasing NPY availability could decrease alcohol intake. By creating a chemical antagonist for a Y2 receptor that would indirectly act as an agonist and stimulate Y1 receptors, alcohol consumption was successfully decreased in rats.  Additionally, another similar study identified that NPY expression may be connected to behavioral regulation in relation to alcohol dependence . Administration of neuropeptide Y was found to reduce binge-drinking behavior.  Although, it has been shown that NPY gene expression , mRNA or neuropeptide levels are not influenced by long-term alcohol consumption, but changes do occur during withdrawal from alcohol. These findings show that Neuropeptide Y has varying effects on alcohol consumption.