Co je oxandrolone

After the Kefauver Harris Amendment was passed in 1962, the . FDA began the DESI review process to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs approved under the more lenient pre-1962 standards, including Dianabol. [26] In 1965, the FDA pressured CIBA to further document its legitimate medical uses, and re-approved the drug for treating post-menopausal osteoporosis and pituitary-deficient dwarfism . [27] After CIBA's patent exclusivity period lapsed, other manufacturers began to market generic metandienone in the .

The mean oral bioavailability of finasteride is approximately 65%. [1] Its volume of distribution is 76 L/kg. [1] The plasma protein binding of finasteride is 90%. [1] The drug has been found to cross the blood–brain barrier , whereas levels in semen were found to be undetectable. [1] Finasteride is extensively metabolized in the liver , first by hydroxylation via CYP3A4 and then by aldehyde dehydrogenase . [1] The metabolites of finasteride have about 20% of its potency in inhibiting 5α-reductase and hence its metabolites are not particularly active. [1] The drug has a terminal half-life of 5 to 6 hours in adult men (18–60 years of age) and a terminal half-life of 8 hours or more in elderly men (greater than 70 years of age). [1] It is eliminated as its metabolites 57% in the feces and 40% in the urine . [1]

The weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain in growth-hormone (GH) treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS), but may also give rise to virilizing side effects. To assess the effect of Ox, at a conventional and low dosage, on behavior, aggression, romantic and sexual interest, mood, and gender role in GH-treated girls with TS, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted. 133 patients were treated with GH ( mg/m(2)/d) from baseline, combined with placebo (Pl), Ox mg/kg/d, or Ox mg/kg/d from the age of eight, and with estrogens from the age of 12. The child behavior checklist (CBCL), Junior Dutch Personality Questionnaire (DPQ-J), State-subscale of the Spielberger's State-Trait Anger Scale, Romantic and Sexual Interest Questionnaire, Mood Questionnaire, and Gender Role Questionnaire were filled out before, during, and after discontinuing Ox/Pl. The changes during Ox/Pl therapy were not significantly different between the dosage groups. In untreated patients, the mean CBCL total (P=) and internalizing (P=) T scores, as well as the mean DPQ-J social inadequacy SD score (SDS) (P=) were higher than in reference girls, but decreased during GH+Ox/Pl therapy (P<, P=, P<, respectively). Whereas the mean total (P=) and internalizing (P<) T score remained relatively high, the mean social inadequacy SDS became comparable with reference values. We conclude that in GH-treated girls with TS, Ox mg/kg/d or mg/kg/d does not cause evident psychological virilizing side effects. Problem behavior, frequently present in untreated girls with TS, decreases during therapy, but total and internalizing problem behavior remain increased.

Co je oxandrolone

co je oxandrolone


co je oxandroloneco je oxandrolone